ETHNOMEDICINAL USES OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA L. (AMARANTHACEAE) IN MANAGEMENT OF GYNAECOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN WESTERN UTTAR PRADESH (INDIA
Rasa : Katu, Tikta
Guna : Rooksha, Teekshna
Virya : Ushna
A small perennial herb having a woody root stock from where the branches arise. Leaves –simple, alternate, elliptic-oblong. Stem and leaves are clothed with small hairs; flowers bluish in color, seen in pairs or sometimes solitary, axillary; fruits globose, 4-valved drooping capsules.
The plant pacifies vitiated pitta, asthma, falling and graying of hair, general debility and memory loss.
Parts used: whole plant
13) Cardiaspermum Halicacabum
Edible Parts: Leaves.
Leaves and young shoots - cooked
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Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emetic; Emmenagogue; Laxative; Refrigerant; Rubefacient; Stomachic.
The whole plant is diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, emmenagogue, laxative, refrigerant, rubefacient, stomachic and sudorific. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, nervous diseases, stiffness of the limbs and snakebite[240, 243]. The leaves are rubefacient, they are applied as a poultice in the treatment of rheumatism[240, 243]. A tea made from them is used in the treatment of itchy skin. Salted leaves are used as a poultice on swellings.The leaf juice has been used as a treatment for earache[240, 243]. The root is diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, laxative and rubefacient. It is occasionally used in the treatment of rheumatism, lumbago and nervous diseases.
This medium to large shrub with its attractive light green two-lobed leaves produces beautiful bright yellow flowers with black to maroon coloured centres from December to March.
Medium to large shrub to a small tree, up to 4m in height. Leaves are divided into two lobes, light green in colour, with a leathery texture, carried on branches that are often drooping. It produces large bell-shaped, bright yellow flowers with a black to deep maroon coloured centre from December to March. The fruit are pea like, slender and velvety. They are light green, turning a pale brown with age and are produced from January to June or even later. Bark is gray or brown.
GENERIC NAME: GINGER (Zingiber officinale)
USES: Ginger has been used for stomach upset, motion sickness, nausea, and vomiting.Some herbal/diet supplement products have been found to contain possibly harmful impurities/additives. Check with your pharmacist for more details about the particular brand you use.The FDA has not reviewed this product for safety or effectiveness. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.
Fresh ginger rhizome.
Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They can also be steeped in boiling water to make ginger tea, to which honey is often added; sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Ginger can also be made into candy.
Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent, and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes, and is an quintessential ingredient of Chinese, Japanese and many South Asian cuisines for flavoring dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine.
Ginger acts as a useful food preservative.
Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1, although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread, cookies, crackers and cakes, ginger ale, and ginger beer.
Candied ginger is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and is a type of confectionery.
Fresh ginger may be peeled before eating. For longer-term storage, the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated or frozen.
Look up ginger in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
In India, ginger is called Aadrak in Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu,Aad in Maithili, Aadi in Bhojpuri, Aada in Bengali, Adu in Gujarati, Hashi Shunti in the Kannada , Allam (అల్లం) in Telugu, Inji in Tamil and Malayalam, Inguru (ඉඟුරු) in Sinhalese, Alay in Marathi, and Aduwa(अदुवा ) in Nepali. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Fresh, as well as dried, ginger is used to spice tea and coffee, especially in winter. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations, particularly for pregnant or nursing women, the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin, ghee, nuts, and sugar. Ginger is also consumed in candied and pickled form.
In Bangladesh, ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside shallot and garlic.
In the Philippines, ginger is called luya and is used as "candy" when there is sore throat or hoarse voice.
In Burma, ginger is called gyin. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot, which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil, and a variety of nuts and seeds.
In Indonesia, a beverage called wedang jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Indonesians also use ground ginger root, called jahe, as a common ingredient in local recipes.
In Nepal, ginger is called "aduwa", अदुवा and is widely grown and used throughout the country as a spice for vegetables, used medically to treat cold and also sometimes used to flavor tea.
In Vietnam, the fresh leaves, finely chopped, can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root.
Two varieties of ginger as sold in Haikou, Hainan, China
In China, sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish, and chopped ginger root is commonly paired with meat, when it is cooked. However, candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes, and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger.
In Japan, ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke.
In the traditional Korean kimchi, ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process.
In Western cuisine, ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale, gingerbread, ginger snaps, parkin, ginger biscuits and speculaas. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac, France. Green ginger wine is a ginger-flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom, traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea.
In the Caribbean, ginger is a popular spice for cooking, and making drinks such as sorrel, a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger, as well as the famous regional specialty Jamaican ginger cake.
On the island of Corfu, Greece, a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsibira), a type of ginger beer, is made. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands adopted the drink from the British, during the period of the United States of the Ionian Islands.
In Arabic, ginger is called zanjabil, and in some parts of the Middle East, ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee and for milk, as well. In Somaliland, ginger is called sinjibil, and is served in coffee shops in Egypt.
In the Ivory Coast, ginger is ground and mixed with orange, pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called nyamanku.
The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger; it was classified as a stimulant and carminative and used frequently for dyspepsia, gastroparesis, slow motility symptoms, constipation, and colic. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list, though it does interact with some medications, including warfarin. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile. Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis, though studies have been inconsistent, and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.
Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.
Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness, morning sickness and chemotherapy, though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for pre-emptively treating post-operative nausea. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy. Ginger as a remedy for motion sickness is still a debated issue. The television program Mythbusters performed an experiment using one of their staff who suffered from severe motion sickness. The staff member was placed in a moving device which, without treatment, produced severe nausea. Multiple treatments were administered. None, with the exception of the ginger and the two most common drugs, were successful. The staff member preferred the ginger due to lack of side effects. Several studies over the last 20 years were inconclusive with some studies in favor of the herb and some not. A common thread in these studies is the lack of sufficient participants to yield statistical significance. Another issue is the lack of a known chemical pathway for the supposed relief.
28)Karanja tree (Pongamia glabra)
Karanja tree (Pongamia glabra) is wonderful tree almost like neem tree. In south part of the indian peninsula the karanja oil / cake are also used same like neem oil and neem cake. This Can be considered same like neem oil and neem cake in pest and fertilizer management in organically.
Pongamia pinnata (Karanja), grows extensively across India. The seed oil has been used by the natives of India for hundreds of years. It is used in Ayuvedic and Siddha traditional medicine systems to treat various skin conditions from eczema and psoriasis to leprosy, and for skin protection, as it is believed to enhance the UV absorbing properties of conventional sunscreens. A paste made of Karanja and lime is used to relieve rheumatic pain, and Karanja infused baths are used for cleaning skin ulcers and sores.
Pharmaceutical preparations based on Karanja Oil are used for treating skin diseases including acne, herpes, rosacia and leucoderma (partial or total loss of skin pigmentation, often occurring in patches, also known as vitiligo.). In Sri Lanka, promising studies have been conducted on the effects of Karanja Oil on keloid scars. Roots of the tree are used for cleaning gums, teeth, and ulcers. Bark is used internally for bleeding piles. Juices from the plant, as well as the oil, are antiseptic.
As a lighting oil, in pharmacy particularly for skin problems, in tanning and soaps. Soap made from crude oil tends to darken due to a component, Isolonchocarpin, which gives a wine red colour in the presence of alkali. In rural areas the leaves are used to prevent infestation of grains. The cake after oil extraction may be used as a manure. The presence of a hypotensive principle and a substance producing uterine contraction has been reported (Bring)).
Much research has been carried out on secondary processing of Karanja oil to overcome some of its shortcomings. All parts of the plant have also been analyzed due to its reported medicinal importance (Bring)).
Karanja oil, like Neem oil, has been widely tested for piscidal, insecticidal, nematicidal and bactericidal activity.
Botanical name: Strobilanthes heynianus Nees (Strobilanthes ciliatus Nees)
Family : Acanthaceae
Sahachara, Sairayea, Daasi.
Rasa : Tikta, Madhura
Guna : Lakhu, Snigda
Virya : Ushna
Vipaka : Katu
Plant pacifies vitiated vata, skin diseases, impotency and diabetes. It is a detoxifier of vitiated blood. .
Useful part : Plant as a whole.
48)TULASI (Ocimum Sanctum)
The plant grows all over India up to 2000 meters height. It is grown in houses, temples and gardens. An erectannual grows 0.5-1.5 meters in height and has red or purple quadrangular branches. The leaves are opposite, about 2-4 cm long, margins entire or toothed, hairy on both the surfaces, dotted with minute glands and are aromatic. The flowers tiny, purple and inflorescence is a long spike or 12-14 cm in length. The fruits are small, smooth nut lets, reddish grey in color.
Botanically, Tulasi is known as Ocimum sanctum and it belongs to family Lamiaceae. The leaves contain an essential oil, which contains eugenol, eugenal, carvacrol, methylchavicol, limatrol and caryophylline. The seeds contain oil composed of fatty acids and sitosterol. The roots contain sitosterol and three triterpenes A, B, and C. The leaves also contain a steroid ursolic acid and n-triacontanol. Eugenol (70.5), its methyl ether (4.8), nerol (6.4), caryophyllene (7.5), terpinen –4-(0.4), decylaldehyde (0.2), selinene (0.4), pinene (0.4), camphene (2.0) and a-pinene (3.5%) identified in essential oil by GC.
Tulasi is pungent and bitter in taste, pungent in the post digestive effect and has hot potency. It alleviates kapha and vata doshas, but slightly aggravates the pitta dosha. It possesses light and dry attributes. On the contrary the seeds are oily and slimy in attributes and have a cold potency. Tulasi is a stimulant, aromatic herb and effectively reduces the fever.(Bhavaprakash)
The seeds, leaves and the roots of Tulasi have great medicinal value. It is used both, internally as well as externally. Tulasi has mild antiseptic, analgesic properties and it relieves the swellings also. Hence, it beneficial, externally, in various skin diseases. The paste of leaves works well, with marica powder, when applied topically in ringworm infestations. The dressing with the pulp of its leaves effectively controls the infections and hastens the healing of chronic infected wounds. The leaves when chewed mitigate the infections of the gums. Instillation of fresh juice of the leaves into ears is an effective domestic medicament for ear aches. The massage with the leaves juice improves the circulation beneath the skin and augments the sensation in the skin. In the headache due to sinusitis, the instillation of juice in the nose facilitates the secretions of kapha and relieves the headache. The dried powder of the leaves can be inhaled, like a snuff, for the same purpose.
Spilanthes calva DC. (Maha Akmella) is a valuable medicinal plant belongs to Family Asteraceae. It is widely used in indigenous medicine to treat toothache in most of the Asian countries. Not only it has anesthetic properties, but also contain secondary metabolites, with the insecticidal properties, which could be used as potential bio insecticide. This is an annual plant, which grows to a height about 30 cm. After flowering mother plant is dried off. Four to six weeks later seeds are germinated and new seedlings are produced. Viability of seeds loses within short period of time. Even though seeds are germinated percentage of germination is low (about 30%). Rooting of cuttings is also not possible. This is a limitation in using this valuable medicinal plant for commercial production. Therefore it is very important to develop a protocol for mass propagation through tissue culture and establishing cell cultures will be useful for large-scale chemical extraction in industrial purposes.
Cordia dichotoma, the fragrant manjack or the bird lime tree, is a plant species in the genus Cordia.
It is called gunda or tenti dela in Hindi and lasura in Nepali. The fruit of the Fragrant Manjack is called phoà-pò·-chí (破布子), 樹子仔, or 樹子 in Taiwan where they are eaten pickled.
In Burma, the Pa-O people are growing the tree (called "thanapet") for its edible leaves.
It is the symbol of Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province in Thailand and can be found in the Nacunday National Park in Paraguay.
The larvae of the butterfly Arhopala micale feed on leaves of C. dichotoma.
The Telegraph Plant (Codariocalyx motorius, often placed in Desmodium), also known as Semaphore Plant, is a tropical Asian shrub, one of a few plants capable of rapid movement; others include Mimosa and the Venus Flytrap.
It is widely distributed throughout Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. It can even be found on the Society Islands, a remote chain of islands in the South Pacific. It produces small purple flowers. Telegraph Plant contains small amounts of tryptamine alkaloids in leaves, stem[verification needed] and root, namely DMT and 5-MeO-DMT.
This plant is famous for its movement of small lateral leaflets at speeds rapid enough to be perceivable with the naked eye. This is a strategy to maximise sunlight by tracking the sun. Each leaf is equipped with a hinge that permits it to be moved in order to receive more sunlight, but the weight of these leaves means the plant must expend a lot of energy in moving it. To optimise movement of large leaves, each large leaf has two small leaflets at its base. These move constantly along an elliptical path, sampling the intensity of sunlight, and directing the large leaf to the area of most intensity.
The common name is due to the rotation of the leaflets with a period of about 3 to 5 minutes; this was likened to a semaphore telegraph, a structure with adjustable paddles that could be seen from a distance, the position of which conveyed a message in semaphore[verification needed], hence the common names.
The Tamils call this plant as "ThozhukaNNi"(Tamil: தொழுகண்ணி. It has been in use in Siddha medicine for centuries. It is a very useful remedy in adhering the cut ends of flesh and healing it. It is also used in curing snake bite poisons. Hence it is also called snake charmer's root. Hence it is also called Aravaattip pachchilai
54)Strychnos nux vomica
-Synonyms---Poison Nut. Semen strychnos. Quaker Buttons.
---Part Used---Dried ripe seeds.
---Habitat---India, in the Malay Archipelago.
Medicinal Action and Uses---The propertiesof Nux Vomica are substantially those of the alkaloid Strychnine. The powdered seeds are employed in atonic dyspepsia. The tincture of Nux Vomica is often used in mixtures - for its stimulant action on the gastro-intestinal tract. In the mouth it acts as a bitter, increasing appetite; it stimulates peristalsis, in chronic constipation due to atony of the bowel it is often combined with cascara and other laxatives with good effects. Strychnine, the chief alkaloid constituent of the seeds, also acts as a bitter, increasing the flow of gastric juice; it is rapidly absorbed as it reaches the intestines, after which it exerts its characteristic effects upon the central nervous system, the movements of respiration are deepened and quickened and the heart slowed through excitation of the vagal centre. The senses of smell, touch, hearing and vision are rendered more acute, it improves the pulse and raises blood pressure and is of great value as a tonic to the circulatory system in cardiac failure. Strychnine is excreted very slowly and its action is cumulative in any but small doses; it is much used as a gastric tonic in dyspepsia. The most direct symptom caused by strychnine is violent convulsions due to a simultaneous stimulation of the motor or sensory ganglia of the spinal cord; during the convulsion there is great rise in blood pressure; in some types of chronic lead poisoning it is of great value. In cases of surgical shock and cardiac failure large doses are given up to 1/10 grain by hypodermic injection; also used as an antidote in poisoning by chloral or chloroform. Brucine closely resembles strychnine in its action, but is slightly less poisonous, it paralyses the peripheral motor nerves. It is said that the convulsive action characteristic of strychnine is absent in brucine almost entirely. It is used in pruritis and as a local anodyne in inflammations of the external ear.
Limonia acidissima (syn. Feronia elephantum, Feronia limonia, Hesperethusa crenulata, Schinus limonia) is the only species within the monotypic genus Limonia, native to Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and southeast Asia east to Java. Vernacular names include wood-apple, elephant-apple, monkey fruit, and curd fruit in English and a variety of names in the languages of its native area.
The essential oils of Alpinia calcarata Rose, rhizomes, roots and leaves were analyzed for their chemical composition by capillary GC and GC/MS. Around 18 compounds were identified. The major compound in the rhizome and leaf oils was 1,8-cineole (33.3% and 24.7%, respectively), whereas in the root oil it was α-fenchyl acetate (39.8%).