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Thursday, December 2, 2010



1)Naravelia Zeylanica

The objective of present study is to evaluate the anti ulcer activity of ethanol extract of leaves of Naravelia zeylanica. The ethanol extract of N.zeylanica was investigated for its anti ulcer activity against aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats, HCl -Ethanol induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress induced ulcer in rats. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer inhibition in aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer model. The number of lesions in HCI-Ethanol induced peptic ulcer model and mean score value of ulcer inhibition in water immersion stress induced ulcer model. A significant antiulcer activity was observed in all the models.

Medicinal Properties of the Plant as per Ayurveda

Plant pacifies vitiated vata, pitta, inflammation, skin diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, arthritis, headache, colic, wounds and ulcers.

Properties of Vatakkodi

Botanical name

Naravelia zeylanica (Linn.) DC



Sanskrit Synonyms

Dhanavalli, Vatanasini.

Ayurvedic Medicinal Properties


Kashaya, Tikta, Madhura


Guru, Snigdha



2) Kaempferia rotunda    Family: Zingiberaceae (Ginger family)

Description: Leaves grow to about 2ft tall. Leaves are graceful and the petioles tightly clasp and overlap each other at the base giving the impression of a stem. Leaves mottled on the surface and red/maroon/purple at the back. Flowers emerge in early spring before the leaves. Individual flowers last for about two to three days only but this is compensated by flowers opening up successively over a period of a month or so. Flowers are very fragrant. Winter dormant. Rhizomes remain underground throughout winter.

Ethnobotany: The rhizomes are used in local medicine by grinding (fresh or dried) and making a paste with water. This paste is mixed with other herbs and applied to sprains and covered with a bandage.

Anti oxidant potential 
The plant Kaempferia rotunda Linn. has been explored for its anti oxidant potential in the present study. The antioxidant property was assessed by lipid peroxidation markers such as malonaldehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyl-2-nonenal (4-HNE). The lipid peroxidation byproducts are highly toxic and responsible for various diseases like myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, hepatic injury, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. The chemical constituents of the plant were critically and qualitatively analyzed to confirm the presence of flavonoids and phenolic derivatives. Hence our objective has been designed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of Kaempferia rotunda linn. and its contribution to control the lipid peroxidation.

3)Hibiscus Abelmoschus

Botanical Name(s): Abelmoschus Moschatus
Family Name: Malvaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Abelmoschus
Species: A. moschatus
Popular Name(s): Ambrette Seeds, Hibiscus Abelmoschus, Musk Mallow, Musk Okra, Ornamental Okra, Yorka Okra, Galu Gasturi, Bamia Moschata
Parts Used: Seeds, Seeds Oil
Habitat: Common in distributed areas and wastelands.


Annual hibiscus is an erect, annual or biennial, hirsute shrub. The soft, herbaceous plant trails to 2 meters in diameter, with soft hairy stems. The lower leaves are ovate and acute, while the upper leaves are palmately 3 to 7 lobed. The bright yellow and large flowers are usually solitary and auxiliary. The capsules are ovate, acute and hispid. The seeds are sub-reniform, black and musk-scented. Due to this strong musk aroma, annual hibiscus seeds are known as grani moschi. In India, the plant is grown widely over the Deccan regions, the hilly regions of Karnataka and at the foothills of the Himalayas. The plant is known as latakasturi, gandapura and kasturilatika in Sanskrit and kasturidana and muskadfana in Hindi. 

Plant Chemicals 

(+)- macrocyclic musks, 5(Z)-tetradecen-14-oide, 7(Z)-hexadecen-16-olide, linoleic acid, a-cephalin, phosphatidylserine, plasmalogen, phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen, ketone, ambrettelide, a lactone of ambrettolic acid, trans-2-trans-6-farnesyl acetate, ambrettolide, cis-2-cis-6-farnesyl acetate, cis-2-trans-6-farnesyl acetate, ethyl hexadecanate, ethyl laurate, trans-2-trans-6-farnesol.

Uses & Benefits of Annual Hibiscus

Annual hibiscus is used as a stimulant and anti-spasmodic in curing snakebites, stomach and intestinal disorders.
It helps in treating ailments such as cramps, loss of appetite, headaches, stomach cancer, hysteria, gonorrhea and respiratory disorders.
Annual hibiscus forms an ingredient in vermouths, bitters and other food products.
The herb is used in relieving spasms of the digestive tract, poor circulation and aching joints.
Its seeds are crushed and steam distilled to produce a volatile oil called musk seed oil or ambrette seed oil.
The seeds are known to be antiseptic, cooling, tonic, carminative and aphrodisiac.
The leaves and roots of annual hibiscus are helpful in curing gonorrhoea and venereal diseases.
Its seeds are used as an inhalation, when suffering from hoarseness and dryness of throat.
The unripe pods, leaves and new shoots of the herb are consumed as vegetables.
The plant’s root mucilage provides sizing for paper. On the other hand, the flowers are sometimes used to flavor tobacco.
Annual hibiscus is also used in making traditional herbal liquor called Benedictine.

4)Sida Retusa

Common name: Paddy’s lucern, Jelly leaf

Family: Malvaceae (1)

Description: Perennial, woody, fibrous stemmed shrub, deeply rooted, grows up to 2m high with small green leaves, broad at base & tapering to a point, alternate 3-7cm long & fine hairs on both sides. Small orange, yellow flowers in clusters at end of branches or in forks of upper leaves. Pods have fine bristles breaking up into segments. (3)

Habitat: Very common throughout Australia, especially in warmer areas (4) Paddocks, gardens, waste places, disturbed forests, roadsides. (1)

Indications(3) * GIT – gastritis, diarrhoea, dysentry, inflammation, irritation, ulcers (1)

Respiratory System – any inflammation, irritation, eg. coughs, bronchitis
Urinary System – cystitis, any painful, irritated condition, haematuria from benign causes

5)Achyranthes Aspera


Medicinal uses: Different parts of the plant are ingredients in many native prescriptions in combination with more active remedies. In Western India the juice is applied to relieve toothache. The ashes with honey are given to relieve cough; the root in dosed of one tola is given at bedtime for night blindness, and rubbed into a paste with water it is used as an anjan (eye salve) in opacities of the cornea. The seeds are often used as a famine food in India, especially in Rajputana, where the plant is called Bharotha (grass). 

6)Evolvulus Alsinoided

Rasa    : Katu, Tikta
Guna   : Rooksha, Teekshna
Virya   : Ushna

A small perennial herb having a woody root stock from where the branches arise. Leaves –simple, alternate, elliptic-oblong. Stem and leaves are clothed with small hairs; flowers bluish in color, seen in pairs or sometimes solitary, axillary; fruits  globose, 4-valved drooping capsules.

The plant pacifies vitiated pitta, asthma, falling and graying of hair, general debility and memory loss.
Parts used: whole plant


7)Alstonia Scholaris

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Tribe: Plumeriae
Subtribe: Alstoniinae
Genus: Alstonia
Species: A. scholaris
Binomial name
Alstonia scholaris

Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae, commonly called Blackboard tree, Indian devil tree, Ditabark, Milkwood pine, White cheesewood and Pulai; syn. Echites scholaris L. Mant., Pala scholaris L. Roberty) is an evergreen, tropical tree native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.


The bark contains the alkaloids ditamine, echitenine and echitamine and used to serve as an alternative to quinine. At one time, a decoction of the bark was used to treat diarrhoea and malaria, as a tonic, febrifuge, emmenagogue, anticholeric and vulnerary. A decoction of the leaves were used for beriberi.[1] Ayurveda recommends A. scholaris for bowel complaints. In Sri Lanka its light wood is used for coffins. In Borneo the wood close to the root is very light and of white colour, and is used for net floats, household utensils, trenchers, corks, etc.

Constituents---It contains three alkaloids, Ditamine, Echitamine or Ditaine, and Echitenines, and several fatty and resinous substances- the second is the strongest base and resembles ammonia in chemical characters.

Medicinal Action and Uses---The bark is used in homoeopathy for its tonic bitter and astringent properties; it is particularly useful for chronic diarrhoea and dysentry.

Preparations and Dosages---Infusion of Alstonia, 5 parts to 100 parts water. Dose, 1 fluid ounce. Powdered bark, 2 to 4 grains

8)Vanilla planifolia

Vanilla planifolia is a species of vanilla orchid. It is native to Mexico, and is one of the primary sources for vanilla flavouring, due to its high vanillin content. Common names are Flat-leaved Vanilla, Tahitian Vanilla (for the Pacific stock formerly thought to be a distinct species), and West Indian Vanilla (also used for the Pompona Vanilla, V. pompona). Often, it is simply referred to as "the vanilla". It was first scientifically named in 1808.


Fruit is produced only on mature plants, which are generally over 3 m (10 ft) long. The fruits are 15-23 cm (6-9 in) long pods (often incorrectly called beans). They mature after about five months, at which point they are harvested and cured. Curing ferments and dries the pods while minimizing the loss of essential oils. Vanilla extract is obtained from this portion of the plant.

9)Phyllanthus Niruri

Medicinal uses

Extracts of this herb have shown promise in treating a wide range of human diseases. Some of the medicinal properties suggested by numerous preclinical trials are anti-hepatotoxic, anti-lithic, anti-hypertensive, anti-HIV and anti-hepatitis B.[1][2] However, human trials have yet to show efficacy against Hepatitis B virus.[3]
The plant has long been used in Brazil and Peru as an herbal remedy for Kidney stones. Research among sufferers of Kidney stones has shown that, while intake of Phyllanthus niruri didn't lead to a significant difference in either stone voiding or pain levels, it may reduce urinary calcium, a contributing factor to stone growth.[4] In addition, one study conducted on rats showed that an aqueous solution of Phyllanthus niruri may inhibit kidney stone growth and formation in animals who already have stones

10)Garcinia gummi-gutta 

Garcinia gummi-gutta (syn. G. cambogia, G. quaesita) is a subtropical species of Garcinia native to Indonesia also commonly known as Gambooge, Brindleberry, Brindall berry, Malabar tamarind, Kodumpuli(Malayalam/Kerala), or Goraka (Sri Lanka). The yellowish fruit is pumpkin-shaped.


In Indian traditional medicine, this species was prescribed for edema, delayed menstruation, constipation and intestinal parasites. In the form of precoction, it was also used for rheumatism and bowel complaints.
The extract and rind of Garcinia cambogia is a curry condiment in India. Extracts from this species are an ingredient in some herbal appetite suppressant and energy products, though there is no formal evidence to support its effectiveness. It is used in weight-loss supplements.[1]


Hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity) from weight-loss supplements which contain extracts of Garcinia cambogia has been reported.[1]

11)Vayambu (Acorus calamus) 

Vayambu (Acorus Calamus) — Ayurvedic Medicinal Herbs

Vayambu is given to small children and young students. It is believed to have a positive effect on mental development of the children.

The rhizome also has sedative properties and used in the treatment of epilepsy. It is also used in the treatment of dysentery, fever, kidney problems, rheumatism, certain skin problems, etc. Vayambu is a constituent of many traditional Ayurveda medicine preparations.

The English names of vayambu are sweet flag and calamus.

Acorus calamus is in the family Acoraceae.


Calamus has been an item of trade in many cultures for thousands of years. Calamus has been used medicinally for a wide variety of ailments, and its smell makes calamus essential oil valued in the perfume industry.
In Bali, Indonesia, calamus is used to give flavour in meat, vegetable and fish dishes.
In antiquity in the Orient and Egypt, the rhizome was thought to be a powerful aphrodisiac. In Europe Acorus calamus was often added to wine, and the root is also one of the possible ingredients of absinthe. Among the northern Native Americans, it is used both medicinally and as a stimulant. It is believed by some that calamus is an hallucinogen. This urban legend is based solely on two pages of a book written by Hoffer and Osmund entitled "The Hallucinogens." The information on these two pages came from anecdotal reports from two individuals (a husband and wife) who reported that they had ingested calamus on a few occasions.[8][9] None of the components in calamus are converted to TMA (trimethoxyamphetamine) in the human organism.[9] To date there is no solid evidence of any hallucinogenic substances in calamus. Acorus calamus shows neuroprotective effect against stroke and chemical induced neurodegeneration in rat. Specifically, it has protective effect against acrylamide induced neurotoxicity.[10]

This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2010)
For the Penobscot this is a very important root. One story[citation needed] is that there was a sickness plaguing the people. A muskrat spirit came to a man in dream and told him that he was a root. He told the man where to find him. The man awoke, found the root, and made a medicine which cured the people. In Penobscot homes, the root was cut and hung up. Steaming it throughout the home is thought to cure sickness. While traveling, a piece of root was kept and chewed to ward off illness.
Teton-Dakota warriors chewed the root to a paste, which they rubbed on their faces. It prevented excitement and fear when facing an enemy.
The Ojibway make a tea by taking a piece of root and scalding it, then drinking the tea warm. Gargling the tea or chewing on a piece of root is also good for sore throat.
The Potawatomi powder the dried root and put up the nose to cure a runny nose.

Illustration from an 1885 flora
Sweet flag has a very long history of medicinal use in many herbal traditions.[citation needed] It is widely employed in modern herbal medicine as an aromatic stimulant and mild tonic. In Ayurveda it is highly valued as for its ability to bring clarity to the consciousness. It is the best remedy for the ill effects of alcohol, particularly on the brain and liver, and is used in Ayurveda to counter the side effects of all hallucinogens. {[11]|date=April 2010} This root has been used as a rejuvenator for the brain and nervous system and as a remedy for digestive disorders. However, some care should be taken in its use since some forms of the plant might be carcinogenic[citation needed] . The root is anodyne, aphrodisiac, aromatic, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, hypotensive, sedative, stimulant, [sedative and stimulant?] stomachic, mildly tonic and vermifuge. It is used internally in the treatment of digestive complaints, bronchitis, sinusitis etc. It is said to have wonderfully tonic powers[citation needed] of stimulating and normalizing the appetite. In small doses it reduces stomach acidity whilst larger doses increase stomach secretions and it is, therefore, recommended in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. However if the dose is too large it will cause nausea and vomiting. Sweet flag is also used externally to treat skin eruptions, rheumatic pains and neuralgia. An infusion of the root can bring about an abortion whilst chewing the root alleviates toothache. It is a folk remedy for arthritis, cancer, convulsions, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, epilepsy etc. Chewing the root is said[who?] to kill the taste for tobacco. Roots 2 – 3 years old are used since older roots tend to become tough and hollow. They are harvested in late autumn or early spring and are dried for later use. The dry root loses 70% of its weight, but has an improved smell and taste. It does, however, deteriorate if stored for too long. Caution is advised on the use of this root, especially in the form of the distilled essential oil, since large doses can cause mild hallucinations. A homeopathic remedy is made from the roots It is used in the treatment of flatulence, dyspepsia, anorexia and disorders of the gall bladder.

12)Stereospermum Suaveolens

Stereospermum suaveolens Details




                                                       13)  Cardiaspermum Halicacabum

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Leaves and young shoots - cooked

Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Diaphoretic;  Diuretic;  Emetic;  Emmenagogue;  Laxative;  Refrigerant;  Rubefacient;  Stomachic.

The whole plant is diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, emmenagogue, laxative, refrigerant, rubefacient, stomachic and sudorific[218]. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, nervous diseases, stiffness of the limbs and snakebite[240, 243]. The leaves are rubefacient, they are applied as a poultice in the treatment of rheumatism[240, 243]. A tea made from them is used in the treatment of itchy skin[218]. Salted leaves are used as a poultice on swellings[218].The leaf juice has been used as a treatment for earache[240, 243]. The root is diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, laxative and rubefacient[240]. It is occasionally used in the treatment of rheumatism, lumbago and nervous diseases[240].

14)Mukkutti (Biophytum Sensitivum) 

Ayurveda also see this little herb as a good medicine, used as a tonic, stimulant and in the treatment of stomachache, diabetes and asthma.

Biophytum sensitivum belongs to the family Oxalidaceae.

Conditions Treated Using Mukkutti:
Arthralgia, Arthritis, Back Pain, Bone Spur, Bursitis, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Cervical Spondylosis, Degenerative Joint Disease, Degenerative Neck Disease, Fibromyalgia, Leg Cramps, Leg pains, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Sprains, Stiff Neck, Tendonitis, Tennis Elbow, Varicocele

15)Bauhinia Tomentosa

This medium to large shrub with its attractive light green two-lobed leaves produces beautiful bright yellow flowers with black to maroon coloured centres from December to March.

Medium to large shrub to a small tree, up to 4m in height. Leaves are divided into two lobes, light green in colour, with a leathery texture, carried on branches that are often drooping. It produces large bell-shaped, bright yellow flowers with a black to deep maroon coloured centre from December to March. The fruit are pea like, slender and velvety. They are light green, turning a pale brown with age and are produced from January to June or even later. Bark is gray or brown.

Crape Jasmine, 

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Subfamily: Rauvolfioideae
Genus: Tabernaemontana
About 100-110, see text
Tabernaemontana is a genus of 100-110 species of flowering plants in the family Apocynaceae. It has a pan-tropical distribution. These plants are shrubs and small trees growing to 1-15 m tall. The leaves are evergreen, opposite, 3-25 cm long, with milky sap; hence it is one of the diverse plant genera commonly called "milkwood". The flowers are fragrant, white, 1-5 cm in diameter.
The cultivar T. divaricata cv. 'Plena', with doubled-petaled flowers, is a popular houseplant. Crape Jasmine (T. coronaria) is also popular as an ornamental plant.
Some members of the genus Tabernaemontana are used as additives to some versions of the psychedelic drink Ayahuasca[1]; the genus is known to contain ibogaine (e.g. in Bëcchëte, T. undulata) and voacangine (namely in T. africana). T. sananho preparations are used in native medicine to treat eye injuries and as an anxiolytic, and T. heterophylla is used to treat dementia in the elderly

The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Tabernaemontana coronaria flowers possessed significant in vitro superoxide, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide scavenging, and lipid peroxidation inhibiting activities. The antiinflammatory activity of the ethanol extract was evaluated by carrageenan-induced acute and formalin-induced chronic antiinflammatory models in mice. The extract showed remarkable antiinflammatory activity in both models, comparable to the standard reference drug diclofenac. The results suggest that the antiinflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of T. coronaria is possibly attributed to its free radical scavenging properties.

17)Phyllanthus emblica

The Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica, syn. Emblica officinalis) is a deciduous tree of the Euphorbiaceae family. It is known for its edible fruit of the same name.

Medical research

Indian gooseberry has undergone preliminary research, demonstrating in vitro antiviral and antimicrobial properties.[2] There is preliminary evidence in vitro that its extracts induce apoptosis and modify gene expression in osteoclasts involved in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.[3]
Experimental preparations of leaves, bark or fruit have shown potential efficacy against laboratory models of disease, such as for inflammation, cancer, age-related renal disease, and diabetes.[4][5][6]
A human pilot study demonstrated reduction of blood cholesterol levels in both normal and hypercholesterolemic men.[7] Another very recent study with alloxan-induced diabetic rats given an aqueous amla fruit extract has shown significant decrease of the blood glucose as well as triglyceridemic levels and an improvement of the liver function caused by a normalization of the liver-specific enzyme alanine transaminase (ALT) activity.[8]
Although fruits are reputed to contain high amounts of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), 445 mg/100g,[9] the specific contents are disputed and the overall antioxidant strength of amla may derive instead from its high density of tannins and other polyphenols.[10] The fruit also contains flavonoids, kaempferol, ellagic acid and gallic acid.[10][11]
Amla as it is known in India is also used to treat hair disorders like premature falling and graying. It has been used to treat various diseases through Ayurvedic medicine therapy dating back to many centuries. It is also known to have one of the highest percentages of natural Vitamin C present in any fruit.

Traditional uses

Medicinal use

In traditional Indian medicine dried and fresh fruits of the plant are used. All parts of the plant are used in various Ayurvedic/Unani Medicine [Jawarish Amla] herbal preparations, including the fruit, seed, leaves, root, bark and flowers.[12] According to Ayurveda, amla fruit is sour (amla) and astringent (kashaya) in taste (rasa), with sweet (madhura), bitter (tikta) and pungent (katu) secondary tastes (anurasas).[12] Its qualities (gunas) are light (laghu) and dry (ruksha), the post-digestive effect (vipaka) is sweet (madhura), and its energy (virya) is cooling (shita).[10]
According to Ayurveda, amla is specific to pitta due to its sweet taste and cooling energy.[12] However, amla is thought to balance vata by virtue of its sour taste, and kapha due to its astringent taste and drying action. It may be used as a rasayana (rejuvenative]] to promote longevity, and traditionally to enhance digestion (dipanapachana), treat constipation (anuloma), reduce fever (jvaraghna), purify the blood (raktaprasadana), reduce cough (kasahara), alleviate asthma (svasahara), strengthen the heart (hrdaya), benefit the eyes (chakshushya), stimulate hair growth (romasanjana), enliven the body (jivaniya), and enhance intellect (medhya).[12] According to Unani System of Medicine the Mizaj of Amla is Sard Khushk so that it is very good remedy for Haar Amraz[Hot Diseases][clarification needed]
In Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations, Indian gooseberry is a common constituent, and most notably is the primary ingredient in an ancient herbal rasayana called Chyawanprash.[10] This formula, which contains 43 herbal ingredients as well as clarified butter, sesame oil, sugar cane juice, and honey, was first mentioned in the Charaka Samhita as a premier rasayana or rejuvenative compound

18)Zingiber Officinale

GENERIC NAME: GINGER (Zingiber officinale)

USES: Ginger has been used for stomach upset, motion sickness, nausea, and vomiting.Some herbal/diet supplement products have been found to contain possibly harmful impurities/additives. Check with your pharmacist for more details about the particular brand you use.The FDA has not reviewed this product for safety or effectiveness. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details.


Culinary use

Fresh ginger rhizome.

Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They can also be steeped in boiling water to make ginger tea, to which honey is often added; sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Ginger can also be made into candy.
Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent,[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes, and is an quintessential ingredient of Chinese, Japanese and many South Asian cuisines for flavoring dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine.
Ginger acts as a useful food preservative.[6]
Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1, although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread, cookies, crackers and cakes, ginger ale, and ginger beer.
Candied ginger is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and is a type of confectionery.
Fresh ginger may be peeled before eating. For longer-term storage, the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated or frozen.

Regional use

Look up ginger in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
In India, ginger is called Aadrak in Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu,Aad in Maithili, Aadi in Bhojpuri, Aada in Bengali, Adu in Gujarati, Hashi Shunti in the Kannada , Allam (అల్లం) in Telugu, Inji in Tamil and Malayalam, Inguru (ඉඟුරු) in Sinhalese, Alay in Marathi, and Aduwa(अदुवा ) in Nepali. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Fresh, as well as dried, ginger is used to spice tea and coffee, especially in winter. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations, particularly for pregnant or nursing women, the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin, ghee, nuts, and sugar. Ginger is also consumed in candied and pickled form.
In Bangladesh, ginger is called Aadha and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside shallot and garlic.
In the Philippines, ginger is called luya and is used as "candy" when there is sore throat or hoarse voice.
In Burma, ginger is called gyin. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot, which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil, and a variety of nuts and seeds.
In Indonesia, a beverage called wedang jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Indonesians also use ground ginger root, called jahe, as a common ingredient in local recipes.
In Nepal, ginger is called "aduwa", अदुवा and is widely grown and used throughout the country as a spice for vegetables, used medically to treat cold and also sometimes used to flavor tea.
In Vietnam, the fresh leaves, finely chopped, can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root.

Two varieties of ginger as sold in Haikou, Hainan, China

In China, sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish, and chopped ginger root is commonly paired with meat, when it is cooked. However, candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes, and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger.
In Japan, ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke.
In the traditional Korean kimchi, ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process.
In Western cuisine, ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale, gingerbread, ginger snaps, parkin, ginger biscuits and speculaas. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac, France. Green ginger wine is a ginger-flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom, traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea.
In the Caribbean, ginger is a popular spice for cooking, and making drinks such as sorrel, a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger, as well as the famous regional specialty Jamaican ginger cake.
On the island of Corfu, Greece, a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsibira), a type of ginger beer, is made. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands adopted the drink from the British, during the period of the United States of the Ionian Islands.
In Arabic, ginger is called zanjabil, and in some parts of the Middle East, ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee and for milk, as well. In Somaliland, ginger is called sinjibil, and is served in coffee shops in Egypt.
In the Ivory Coast, ginger is ground and mixed with orange, pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called nyamanku.

Medicinal use

The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger; it was classified as a stimulant and carminative and used frequently for dyspepsia, gastroparesis, slow motility symptoms, constipation, and colic. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list, though it does interact with some medications, including warfarin. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile.[7] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis, though studies have been inconsistent, and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.[8]


Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.[9]


Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness, morning sickness and chemotherapy,[10] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for pre-emptively treating post-operative nausea. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy.[11] Ginger as a remedy for motion sickness is still a debated issue. The television program Mythbusters performed an experiment using one of their staff who suffered from severe motion sickness. The staff member was placed in a moving device which, without treatment, produced severe nausea. Multiple treatments were administered. None, with the exception of the ginger and the two most common drugs, were successful. The staff member preferred the ginger due to lack of side effects. Several studies over the last 20 years were inconclusive with some studies in favor of the herb and some not.[12][13] A common thread in these studies is the lack of sufficient participants to yield statistical significance. Another issue is the lack of a known chemical pathway for the supposed relief.

19)Ficus Glomerata

 Ficus glomerata is a species of plant in the Moraceae family. Popularly known as the Cluster Fig Tree or Goolar (Gular) Fig, this is native to Australasia, South-East Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. it is unusual in that its figs grow on or close to the tree trunk.In India the tree and its fruit are called gular in the north and atti in the south.The fruits are a favorite staple of the common Indian macaque. In Vietnam, it is called sung.
It serves as a food plant for the caterpillars of the butterfly the Two-brand Crow (Euploea sylvester) of northern Australia.

20)Ficus retusa

Ficus retusa, or Ficus microcarpa, also known as Cuban-laurel is "a rapidly-growing, rounded, broad-headed, evergreen tree can reach 15 metres (50 feet) or more in height with an equal spread. The glossy, dark green, leathery leaves are densely clothed on large, somewhat weeping branches and are usually infested with thrips. New growth, produced all year long, is a light rose to chartreuse color, giving the tree a lovely two-toned effect. The smooth, light grey trunk is quite striking, can grow to around a metre (three or four feet) in diameter, and it firmly supports the massively spreading canopy."[1]
Ficus microcarpa var. nitida also known as "Banyan Fig", Taiwan Ficus, Ginseng Ficus, or "Indian Laurel Fig", is a species of evergreen woody plant in the fig genus, native to Malaysia, Taiwan, and other Southeast and East Asian countries. The tree has small, dark green leaves which alternate up the stem and which are oval. It has a gray to reddish bark dotted with small, horizontal flecks, called lenticels, and are used by woody plant species for supplementary gas exchange through the bark. It is considered one of the easiest trees to keep as a Bonsai.(center richelieu ficus bonsai)

21)Ficus Religiosa

Ficus religiosa or Bo-Tree (from the Sinhala bo)[1] is a species of banyan fig native to Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, southwest China and Indochina. It is a large dry season-deciduous or semi-evergreen tree up to 30 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 3 m. The leaves are cordate in shape with a distinctive extended tip; they are 10–17 cm long and 8–12 cm broad, with a 6–10 cm petiole. The fruit is a small fig 1-1.5 cm diameter, green ripening purple. The Bodhi tree and the Sri Maha Bodhi propagated from it are famous specimens of Sacred Fig. The known planting date of the latter, 288 BC, gives it the oldest verified age for any angiosperm plant. This plant is considered sacred by the followers of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism, and hence the name 'Sacred Fig' was given to it. Siddhartha Gautama is said to have been sitting underneath a Bo-Tree when he was enlightened (Bodhi), or "awakened" (Buddha). Thus, the Bo-Tree is well-known symbol for happiness, prosperity, longevity and good luck. Today in India, Hindu sadhus still meditate below this tree, and in Theravada Buddhist Southeast Asia, the tree's massive trunk is often the site of Buddhist and animist shrines. The Hindus do pradakshina (circumambulation) around the sacred fig tree as a mark of worship. Usually seven pradakshinas are done around the tree in the morning time chanting "Vriksha Rajaya Namah" meaning salutation to the king of trees.

22)Cyathula Prostata

Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume

Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Caryophyllidae
Order Caryophyllales
Family Amaranthaceae – Amaranth family
Genus Cyathula Blume – cyathula
Species Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume – pastureweed


Genus:" Perennial herbs or undershrubs; leaves opposite, the blades entire; flowers clustered, the clusters (in our species) on rachis of a long raceme on short, jointed stalks, deflexed after anthesis, the perfect flowers in each cluster 1-3, accompanied by 1 or more imperfect, sterile flowers reduced to fascicled hooks, the distal flowers solitary, without hooks; tepals of perfect flowers 5, oblong, short-acuminate, with scariose margins, longitudinally nerved; stamens 5, the filaments proximally connate into a short cup, the free parts alternating with shorter, dentate or lacerate pseudostaminodes, the anthers 2-celled (4-loculed); ovary obovoid, the ovule 1, pendulous from a long funicle, the style filiform, the stigma capitate; utricle ellipsoid, thin-walled, indehiscent, 1-seeded" (Smith, 1981; pp. 289-290).

Species:  A herb 0.3-1 m high, subligneous toward base and with a long taproot (Smith, 1981; pp. 289-290). "Annuals, the herbace puberulent with curved hairs; stems creeping-ascending, 3-10 dm long, becoming much-branched; petioles 3-15 mm long; leaves opposite, the blades 1-6 cm long, 6-35 mm wide, ovate to somewhat rhombic or elliptic to lanceolate, attenuate, cuneate to acute or obtuse at the base; flowers borne in lax, spicate clusters, 2-12 cm long, on peduncles 1-4 cm long; each cluster 3-flowered, with one fertile and the others sterile, sepals 2.2-3 mm long, oblong-elliptic; seed ovoid, ca 1.5 mm broad, shining, brown, smooth"  (Welsh, 1998; pp. 27-28).

23)Dillenia pentagyna

Scientific Name : Dillenia pentagyna
Family : Dilleniaceae
Common Name : Dillenia pentagyna

Medium size tree with very attractive foliage.

Propagation : Seeds
Longevity : Perennial

24)Terminalia Arjuna

Terminalia arjuna (Neer maruthu in Malayalam) is a medicinal plant of the genus Terminalia, widely used by ayurvedic physicians for its curative properties in organic/functional heart problems including angina, hypertension and deposits in arteries. According to Ayurvedic texts it also very useful in the treatment of any sort of pain due a fall, ecchymosis, spermatorrhoea and sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhoea. Arjuna bark (Terminallia arjuna) is thought to be beneficial for the heart. This has also been proved in a research by Dr. K. N. Udupa in Banaras Hindu University's Institute of Medical Sciences , Varanasi (India). In this research, they found that powdered extract of the above drug provided very good results to the people suffering from Coronary heart diseases.[citation needed]
Research suggests that Terminalia is useful in alleviating the pain of angina pectoris and in treating heart failure and coronary artery disease. Terminalia may also be useful in treating hypercholesterolemia[1]. The cardioprotective effects of terminalia are thought to be caused by the antioxidant nature of several of the constituent flavonoids and oligomeric proanthocyanidins, while positive inotropic effects may be caused by the saponin glycosides. In addition to its cardiac effects, Terminalia may also be protective against gastric ulcers, such as those caused by NSAIDs [2].
The leaves of this tree are also fed on by the Antheraea paphia moth which produces the tassar silk (Tussah), a form of wild silk of commercial importance.

Medicinal use

Ancient Indian physicians used the powdered tree bark of Terminalia arjuna for alleviating “hritshool” (angina) and othercardiovascular conditions. Its stem bark possesses glycosides, large quantities of flavonoids, tannins and minerals. Flavonoids have been detected to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipid lowering effects while glycosides are cardiotonic, thus making Terminalia arjuna unique amongst currently used medicinal plants. In this review an attempt has been made to discuss various aspects of its ethnomedical, pharmacognostical, phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical relevance to cardiovascular conditions. Experimental studies have revealed its bark exerting significant inotropic and hypotensive effect, increasing coronary artery flow and protecting myocardium against ischemic damage. It has also been detected to have mild diuretic, antithrombotic, prostaglandin E2 enhancing and hypolipidaemic activity. There is ample clinical evidence of its beneficial effect in coronary artery disease alone and along with statin. Considering its anti-ischemic activity and its potential to correct dyslipidemia, reduce left ventricular mass and increase left ventricular ejection fraction; proposition to administer Terminalia arjuna along with statins deserves to be explored in depth for defining its place in the over all management and prevention of coronary artery disease.

25)Strobilanthes Ciliatus

Family : Acanthaceae
Habit: Shrub

Sanskrit: Sahacharah, Sairyakah
English: -

An aromatic, much-branched shrub, with broad elliptic-lanceolate leaves, small purplish flowers, in slender axillary spikes and 2-4-seeded capsule containing compressed, smooth seeds.
Useful part
Root, leaves, bark

Medicinal Uses
Roots rheumatism, limping, chest congestion, fever, leucoderma, skin diseases, inflammations, cough, bronchitis, general debility, whooping cough, leprosy

26)Santalum Album

'Sandalwood' by Köhler
Santalum album
Conservation status

Vulnerable (IUCN 2.3)[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Santalales
Family: Santalaceae
Genus: Santalum
Species: S. album
Binomial name
Santalum album
Santalum album is a small tropical tree of the Santalaceae family, the most commonly known source of sandalwood. This species has been utilised, cultivated and traded for many years, some cultures placing great significance on its fragrant and medicinal qualities. For these reasons it has been extensively exploited, to the point where the wild population is vulnerable to extinction. It still commands high prices for its essential oil, but due to lack of sizable trees it is no longer used for fine woodworking as before. The plant is widely cultivated and long lived, although harvest is viable after 40 years.


Young sapling
S. album has been the primary source of sandalwood and the derived oil. These often hold an important place within the societies of its naturalised distribution range. The high value of the plant has led to attempts at cultivation, this has increased the distribution range of the plant. The ISO Standard for the accepted characteristics of this essential oil is ISO 3518:2002.[7] The long maturation period and difficulty in cultivation have been restrictive to extensive planting within the range. Harvest of the tree involves several curing and processing stages, also adding to the commercial value. These wood and oil have high demand and are an important trade item in the regions of:
Utilisation of all the Australian Santalum species in has been extensive; Santalum spicatum was extensively harvested and exported from Western Australia during colonisation, this was used as a less expensive alternative to this species. Commercial Indian Sandalwood plantations are now in full operations in Kununurra, Western Australia.[8]
The use of S. album in India is noted in their literature for over two thousand years. It has use as wood and oil in religious practices. It also features as a construction material in temples and elsewhere. The Indian government has banned the export of the species to reduce the threat by over-harvesting. In the southern Indian state of Karnataka, all trees of greater than a specified girth are the property of the state. Cutting of trees, even on private property, is regulated by the Forest Department.[9] The infamous forest bandit Veerappan was involved in the illegal felling of sandalwood trees from forests.
Sri Lanka
An extensive history of use.
The harvesting of sandalwood is preferred to be of trees that are advanced in age. Saleable wood can, however, be of trees as young as seven years. The entire plant is removed rather than cut to the base, as in coppiced species. The extensive removal of S. album over the past century led to increased vulnerability to extinction

27)Hydndcarpus Lurifolia

Use of Hydndcarpus Lurifolia

Styptic, wound healer, Musculoskeletal disorder,abcess, boils, snake bite, sudation therapy, herpes, impure breast milk, fumigation in wounds, wounded patient ward, epilepsy.

28)Karanja tree (Pongamia glabra)

Karanja tree (Pongamia glabra) is wonderful tree almost like neem tree. In south part of the indian peninsula the karanja oil / cake are also used same like neem oil and neem cake. This Can be considered same like neem oil and neem cake in pest and fertilizer management in organically.

Pongamia pinnata (Karanja), grows extensively across India. The seed oil has been used by the natives of India for hundreds of years. It is used in Ayuvedic and Siddha traditional medicine systems to treat various skin conditions from eczema and psoriasis to leprosy, and for skin protection, as it is believed to enhance the UV absorbing properties of conventional sunscreens. A paste made of Karanja and lime is used to relieve rheumatic pain, and Karanja infused baths are used for cleaning skin ulcers and sores.

Pharmaceutical preparations based on Karanja Oil are used for treating skin diseases including acne, herpes, rosacia and leucoderma (partial or total loss of skin pigmentation, often occurring in patches, also known as vitiligo.). In Sri Lanka, promising studies have been conducted on the effects of Karanja Oil on keloid scars. Roots of the tree are used for cleaning gums, teeth, and ulcers. Bark is used internally for bleeding piles. Juices from the plant, as well as the oil, are antiseptic.


As a lighting oil, in pharmacy particularly for skin problems, in tanning and soaps. Soap made from crude oil tends to darken due to a component, Isolonchocarpin, which gives a wine red colour in the presence of alkali. In rural areas the leaves are used to prevent infestation of grains. The cake after oil extraction may be used as a manure. The presence of a hypotensive principle and a substance producing uterine contraction has been reported (Bring)).

Much research has been carried out on secondary processing of Karanja oil to overcome some of its shortcomings. All parts of the plant have also been analyzed due to its reported medicinal importance (Bring)).

Karanja oil, like Neem oil, has been widely tested for piscidal, insecticidal, nematicidal and bactericidal activity.

29)Ashoka tree

The Ashoka tree (lit., "sorrow-less") (S. asoca (Roxb.) Wilde, or Saraca indica L. ) is a plant belonging to the Caesalpiniaceae subfamily of the legume family.[1] It is an important tree in the cultural traditions of the Indian Subcontinent and adjacent areas.

Ashoka is an excellent herb for gynecological problems. It is useful in stimulating the uterus, the endometrium and the ovarian tissues, uterine bleeding associated with fibroids, leucorrhoea, menstrual disturbances without producing any side effects. Apart from this it is also useful for other ailments such as internal piles, diabetes, dyspepsia, indigestion, burning sensation, blood disorders, fractures, tumors, bites, ulcerations, and skin discoloration.


Bael (Aegle marmelos) is a middle sized slender aromatic armed tree native to India and Pakistan. It has since spread to throughout South-east Asia. It is a gum-bearing tree.


The fruit is eaten fresh or dried. If fresh, the juice is strained and sweetened to make a drink similar to lemonade, and is also used in making sharbat, a refreshing drink where the pulp is mixed with water, sugar and some lime juice and then left to stand for a few hours, after which it is strained.Ice cubes can be added. It is called bael ka sharbat (Hindi) or bel pana (Oriya:ବେଲ ପଣା), popular in Northern and Eastern India.People love it for it's cooling effect (stops sweating). If the fruit is to be dried, it is usually sliced first and left to dry by the heat of the sun. The hard leathery slices are then placed in a pan with several litres of water which is then boiled and simmered. As for other parts of the plant, the leaves and small shoots are eaten as salad greens.
The Tamil Siddhars used koovilam (Tamil:கூவிளம், as Aegle Marmelos is called for many purposes. The leaves are used to cure sinusitis, dyspepsia and anorexia. A confection ("iLakam" in Tamil)(Tamil:இளகம் made of this fruit is used to cure tuberculosis, loss of appetite, emaciation etc. There are several such pharmacopoeia in Siddha medicine.[1]
This tree is a larval foodplant for the following two Indian Swallowtail butterflies:

31)Sterospermum suavolens

Scientific name

32)Holoptelea integrifolia

Medicinal uses: The bark of Indian Elm is used in rheumatism. Seed and paste of stem bark is used in treating ringworm. Bark and leaves are used for treating oedema, diabetes, leprosy and other skin diseases, intestinal disorders, piles and sprue.

33)Holarrena Antidysentrica

34)Ficus Microcarpa

Ficus microcarpa, also known as Chinese Banyan, Malayan Banyan, Indian Laurel or Curtain fig, is a banyan native in the range from Sri Lanka to India, southern China, the Malay Archipelago, the Ryukyu Islands, Australia, and New Caledonia.

35)Artocarpus hirsutus

Artocarpus hirsutus, known by a variety of names, such as Aini, Aini-maram, is a tropical evergreen tree species that is native to India (Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu), where it prefers moist, deciduous to partially evergreen woodlands.[2][3]
Its flowers are in axillary inflorescences and its fruits are syncarps, changing to an orange hue when ripe. Its simple, alternate leaves will ooze latex if broken. It is harvested for its wood

36)Premna serratifolia Linn

Sanskrit Synonyms

Agnimandha, Arani, Ganikarika, Vaijayanta

Description of the Plant

A large shrub or small tree grows up to 10 meters in height. Bark yellowish with lenticels; leaves simple, opposite, serrated; flowers small, greenish white with strong odor, fruits globose drupes.

Medicinal Properties of the Plant as per Ayurveda

Plant pacifies vitiated vata, kapha, nervine pain, arthritis, indigestion, constipation, rhinitis, fever, hemorrhoids and tumors.

Useful parts of the herb

Root, Leaves

37)Oroxylum indicum

Oroxylum indicum is a species of flowering plant belonging to the family Bignoniaceae.


The tree is often grown as an ornamental for its strange appearance. Materials used include the wood, tannins and dyestuffs.
It is also a plant with edible leaves and stems[9].

In traditional medicines

The Oroxylum indicum seed is used in the traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine. The root bark is also used, administered as astringent, bitter tonic, stomachic and anodyne. It is included in famous tonic formulations, such as Chyawanprash.
The bark of O. indicum (Chinese : 木蝴蝶树皮, hanyu pinyin : mù húdié shùpí) or Cortex Oroxyli is a traditional Chinese medicine ingredient.
The bark of O. indicum (Singhala / Sri Lanka: Totila, Totilla) is one of main ingredients in Sri Lankan indigenous medicine (in decoctions); as a remedy for pains in joints, rheumatism[

38) Gmelina arborea L.
Habit Tree
Used In Ayurveda, Folk, Tibetian and Sidha

It is a native of Pakistan, Bhutan and India. It is an Indo-Malesian species. In India it is found in the Sub-Himalayan tracts, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Dehra Dun, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. This species is globally distributed from Brazil to Indo-Malesia. Within India, it is found almost throughout in deciduous forests particularly in Peninsular India upto an altitude of 1600 m. and in the Andaman Islands.

39)Orthosiphon stamineus

Orthosiphon stamineus or Misai Kucing (Malay for "Cat's Whiskers") is a traditional herb that is widely grown in tropical areas. The two general species, Orthosiphon stamineus "purple" and Orthosiphon stamineus "white" are traditionally used to treat diabetes, kidney and urinary disorders, high blood pressure and bone or muscular pain.
Also known as Java tea, it was possibly introduced to the west in early 20th century. Misai Kucing is popularly consumed as a herbal tea. The brewing of Java tea is similar to that for other teas. It is soaked in hot boiling water for about three minutes, before being added with honey or milk. It can be easily prepared as garden tea from the dried leaves. There are quite a number of commercial products derived from Misai Kucing.

40)Citharexylum subserratum

The parijatham that is popularly known in Tamil as pavazha malli (literally, jasmine that is hued like a coral) are the milky white flowers with stem the colour of coral.

41)Strobilathes ciliates

Botanical name: Strobilanthes heynianus Nees (Strobilanthes ciliatus Nees)
Family : Acanthaceae
Sahachara, Sairayea, Daasi.
Rasa : Tikta, Madhura
Guna : Lakhu, Snigda
Virya : Ushna
Vipaka : Katu

Plant pacifies vitiated vata, skin diseases, impotency and diabetes. It is a detoxifier of vitiated blood. .
Useful part : Plant as a whole.

42)Desmodium gangeticum

Desmodium gangeticum ( Sanskrit: अंशुमती anshumati, ध्रुवा dhruva, दीर्घमूला dirghamoola, पीवरी pivari, शालपर्णी shalaparni )is plant in the Fabaceae family.

Siddha Medicinal Uses :

The decoction prepared from the root of this plant is given in the dose of 30-60 ml twice daily for fever, cardiac disorders, body pain, inflammation.
Root decoction or root powder (1 to 2 gram) can be given for diarrhoea, dysentry etc.
It is said through research work that leaves of this plant have galactogogue action.


Bombax ceiba, like other trees of the genus Bombax, is commonly known as cotton tree or tree cotton. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flowers with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. It produces a capsule which, when ripe, contains white fibres like cotton. Its trunk bears spikes to deter attacks by animals. Although its stout trunk suggests that it is useful for timber, its wood is too soft to be very useful.


The cotton inside the fruits was used a substitute for cotton. The flower was a common ingredient in Chinese herb tea.
In Guangdong, the tree is known as muk min (木棉, lit. wood cotton) or hung min (紅棉, lit. red cotton). It is also known as Ying Hung Shue (英雄樹, lit. hero tree), for its straight and tall trunk. The tree flower is the flower emblem of Guangzhou and Kaohsiung. Folk knowledge in Hong Kong states that soon after the tree blooms, the weather will get hotter.
The Sanskrit name for this tree is Salmali. In the Rigveda, the chariot is made of Salmali (RV 10.85.20) and other woods.

44)Pathimukham (Caesalpenia Sappan) — Ayurvedic Medicinal Herbs

Pathimukham (Caesalpenia sappan) is a perennial tree with pinnate compound leaves. Its pink-rose flowering also makes it an ornamental plant.

The flowers also form a base for Ayurvedic fairness creams. The heartwood produces a red color which is useful in coloring food and fabrics.

Pathimukham tree is cultivated for its medicinal value. Its bark, heartwood, flower and roots are all usable parts.

The water kept in the heartwood of pathimukam tree is rich in minerals and has diuretic, anti-oxidative, thirst quenching, anti-bacterial and tonic properties. It is also blood purifying and is a good drink for persons with diabetes. It cures jaundice, cough, respiratory problems, etc.

The other names are sappan wood and bukkum wood tree. It strives in different climatic conditions, except frost and drought.

Caesalpinia sappans belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae.

Selaginella is a genus of plants in the family Selaginellaceae, the spikemosses. Many workers still place the Selaginellales in the class Lycopodiopsida (often misconstructed as "Lycopsida"). This group of plants has for years been included in what, for convenience, was called "fern allies". Some workers have used the class Isoetopsida for both the spikemosses and the quillworts, even though the name Selaginellopsida A.B. Frank 1874 has priority over the name Isoetopsida, which was not published until 1885. Priority does not apply above the rank of family. The preferred modern term for the Lycopodiophyta, including Selaginella, is lycophytes. S. moellendorffii is an important model organism, and its genome was sequenced by the United States Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute

Genus of about 700 species of evergreen, rhizomatous perennials found in a range of habitats, from semi-desert to rainforest, mostly in tropical regions, with some species in temperate and alpine zones. Selaginella, or Creeping Moss, was a Victorian favourite. 


A large climbing shrub


M. smilacifolium

Importance of the Species
Medicinal importance

47)Coleus Aromatiens

Tender fleshy perennial plant in the family Lamiaceae with an oregano-like flavor and odor, native to Southern and Eastern Africa, but widely cultivated and naturalised in the Old and New World Tropics. Common names include Cuban oregano, Spanish thyme, Orégano Brujo (Puerto Rico), Indian Borage, Húng chanh (Vietnam), Mexican thyme, and Mexican mint


The leaves are strongly flavoured and make an excellent addition to stuffings for meat and poultry. Finely chopped, they can also be used to flavour meat dishes, especially beef, lamb and game.
The leaves have also had many traditional medicinal uses, especially for the treatment of coughs, sore throats and nasal congestion, but also for a range of other problems such as infections, rheumatism and flatulence. In Indonesia Plectranthus amboinicus is a traditional food used in soup to stimulate lactation for the month or so following childbirth.
The herb is also used as a substitute for oregano in the food trade and food labelled "oregano-flavoured" may well contain this herb.
In Kerala this is called as "panikoorka" and has various uses in treating cold / cough / fever in infants. 

48)TULASI (Ocimum Sanctum)

The plant grows all over India up to 2000 meters height. It is grown in houses, temples and gardens. An erectannual grows 0.5-1.5 meters in height and has red or purple quadrangular branches. The leaves are opposite, about 2-4 cm long, margins entire or toothed, hairy on both the surfaces, dotted with minute glands and are aromatic. The flowers tiny, purple and inflorescence is a long spike or 12-14 cm in length. The fruits are small, smooth nut lets, reddish grey in color.

Botanically, Tulasi is known as Ocimum sanctum and it belongs to family Lamiaceae. The leaves contain an essential oil, which contains eugenol, eugenal, carvacrol, methylchavicol, limatrol and caryophylline. The seeds contain oil composed of fatty acids and sitosterol. The roots contain sitosterol and three triterpenes A, B, and C. The leaves also contain a steroid ursolic acid and n-triacontanol. Eugenol (70.5), its methyl ether (4.8), nerol (6.4), caryophyllene (7.5), terpinen –4-(0.4), decylaldehyde (0.2), selinene (0.4), pinene (0.4), camphene (2.0) and a-pinene (3.5%) identified in essential oil by GC.


Tulasi is pungent and bitter in taste, pungent in the post digestive effect and has hot potency. It alleviates kapha and vata doshas, but slightly aggravates the pitta dosha. It possesses light and dry attributes. On the contrary the seeds are oily and slimy in attributes and have a cold potency. Tulasi is a stimulant, aromatic herb and effectively reduces the fever.(Bhavaprakash)


The seeds, leaves and the roots of Tulasi have great medicinal value. It is used both, internally as well as externally. Tulasi has mild antiseptic, analgesic properties and it relieves the swellings also. Hence, it beneficial, externally, in various skin diseases. The paste of leaves works well, with marica powder, when applied topically in ringworm infestations. The dressing with the pulp of its leaves effectively controls the infections and hastens the healing of chronic infected wounds. The leaves when chewed mitigate the infections of the gums. Instillation of fresh juice of the leaves into ears is an effective domestic medicament for ear aches. The massage with the leaves juice improves the circulation beneath the skin and augments the sensation in the skin. In the headache due to sinusitis, the instillation of juice in the nose facilitates the secretions of kapha and relieves the headache. The dried powder of the leaves can be inhaled, like a snuff, for the same purpose.

Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth; also patchouly or pachouli) is a species from the genus Pogostemon and a bushy herb of the mint family, with erect stems, reaching two or three feet (about 0.75 metre) in height and bearing small pale pink-white flowers. The plant is native to tropical regions of Asia and is now extensively cultivated in China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mauritius, Philippines, West Africa and Vietnam.
The scent of patchouli is heavy and strong, used for centuries in perfumes. The word derives from the Tamil patchai (Tamil: பச்சை) (green), ellai (Tamil: இலை) (leaf) [1]. In Assamese it is known as xukloti.
Pogostemon cablin, P. commosum, P. hortensis, P. heyneasus and P. plectranthoides are all cultivated for their oils and all are known as 'patchouli' oil, but P. cablin is considered superior.

50)Spilanthes calva

Spilanthes calva DC. (Maha Akmella) is a valuable medicinal plant belongs to Family Asteraceae. It is widely used in indigenous medicine to treat toothache in most of the Asian countries. Not only it has anesthetic properties, but also contain secondary metabolites, with the insecticidal properties, which could be used as potential bio insecticide. This is an annual plant, which grows to a height about 30 cm. After flowering mother plant is dried off. Four to six weeks later seeds are germinated and new seedlings are produced. Viability of seeds loses within short period of time. Even though seeds are germinated percentage of germination is low (about 30%). Rooting of cuttings is also not possible. This is a limitation in using this valuable medicinal plant for commercial production. Therefore it is very important to develop a protocol for mass propagation through tissue culture and establishing cell cultures will be useful for large-scale chemical extraction in industrial purposes.

51)Cordia Dichotoma

Cordia dichotoma, the fragrant manjack or the bird lime tree, is a plant species in the genus Cordia.
It is called gunda or tenti dela in Hindi and lasura in Nepali. The fruit of the Fragrant Manjack is called phoà-pò·-chí (破布子), 樹子仔, or 樹子 in Taiwan where they are eaten pickled.
In Burma, the Pa-O people are growing the tree (called "thanapet") for its edible leaves.
It is the symbol of Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province in Thailand and can be found in the Nacunday National Park in Paraguay.
The larvae of the butterfly Arhopala micale feed on leaves of C. dichotoma.

52)Desmodicim gyrans

The Telegraph Plant (Codariocalyx motorius, often placed in Desmodium[1]), also known as Semaphore Plant, is a tropical Asian shrub, one of a few plants capable of rapid movement; others include Mimosa and the Venus Flytrap.
It is widely distributed throughout Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. It can even be found on the Society Islands, a remote chain of islands in the South Pacific. It produces small purple flowers. Telegraph Plant contains small amounts of tryptamine alkaloids in leaves, stem[verification needed] and root, namely DMT and 5-MeO-DMT.
This plant is famous for its movement of small lateral leaflets at speeds rapid enough to be perceivable with the naked eye. This is a strategy to maximise sunlight by tracking the sun. Each leaf is equipped with a hinge that permits it to be moved in order to receive more sunlight, but the weight of these leaves means the plant must expend a lot of energy in moving it. To optimise movement of large leaves, each large leaf has two small leaflets at its base. These move constantly along an elliptical path, sampling the intensity of sunlight, and directing the large leaf to the area of most intensity.
The common name is due to the rotation of the leaflets with a period of about 3 to 5 minutes; this was likened to a semaphore telegraph, a structure with adjustable paddles that could be seen from a distance, the position of which conveyed a message in semaphore[verification needed], hence the common names.
The Tamils call this plant as "ThozhukaNNi"(Tamil: தொழுகண்ணி. It has been in use in Siddha medicine for centuries. It is a very useful remedy in adhering the cut ends of flesh and healing it. It is also used in curing snake bite poisons. Hence it is also called snake charmer's root. Hence it is also called Aravaattip pachchilai

54)Strychnos nux vomica

-Synonyms---Poison Nut. Semen strychnos. Quaker Buttons.
---Part Used---Dried ripe seeds.
---Habitat---India, in the Malay Archipelago.

Medicinal Action and Uses---The propertiesof Nux Vomica are substantially those of the alkaloid Strychnine. The powdered seeds are employed in atonic dyspepsia. The tincture of Nux Vomica is often used in mixtures - for its stimulant action on the gastro-intestinal tract. In the mouth it acts as a bitter, increasing appetite; it stimulates peristalsis, in chronic constipation due to atony of the bowel it is often combined with cascara and other laxatives with good effects. Strychnine, the chief alkaloid constituent of the seeds, also acts as a bitter, increasing the flow of gastric juice; it is rapidly absorbed as it reaches the intestines, after which it exerts its characteristic effects upon the central nervous system, the movements of respiration are deepened and quickened and the heart slowed through excitation of the vagal centre. The senses of smell, touch, hearing and vision are rendered more acute, it improves the pulse and raises blood pressure and is of great value as a tonic to the circulatory system in cardiac failure. Strychnine is excreted very slowly and its action is cumulative in any but small doses; it is much used as a gastric tonic in dyspepsia. The most direct symptom caused by strychnine is violent convulsions due to a simultaneous stimulation of the motor or sensory ganglia of the spinal cord; during the convulsion there is great rise in blood pressure; in some types of chronic lead poisoning it is of great value. In cases of surgical shock and cardiac failure large doses are given up to 1/10 grain by hypodermic injection; also used as an antidote in poisoning by chloral or chloroform. Brucine closely resembles strychnine in its action, but is slightly less poisonous, it paralyses the peripheral motor nerves. It is said that the convulsive action characteristic of strychnine is absent in brucine almost entirely. It is used in pruritis and as a local anodyne in inflammations of the external ear.

55)Limonia Acidissima

Limonia acidissima (syn. Feronia elephantum, Feronia limonia, Hesperethusa crenulata,[1] Schinus limonia) is the only species within the monotypic genus Limonia, native to Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and southeast Asia east to Java. Vernacular names include wood-apple, elephant-apple, monkey fruit, and curd fruit in English and a variety of names in the languages of its native area.

56)Ipomoea painiculata
Rasa : Madhura
Guna : Guru, Snigdha
Virya : Seeta
Vipaka : Madhura

Plant pacifies vitiated vata, pitta, emaciation, skin diseases, anorexia, colic, fever, burning sensation, vomiting, inflammation, menorrhagia and general debility. It is also used to promote breast milk production.
Useful part : Tuberous roots. 

57)Alpinia Calcarata

The essential oils of Alpinia calcarata Rose, rhizomes, roots and leaves were analyzed for their chemical composition by capillary GC and GC/MS. Around 18 compounds were identified. The major compound in the rhizome and leaf oils was 1,8-cineole (33.3% and 24.7%, respectively), whereas in the root oil it was α-fenchyl acetate (39.8%).


  1. akrav ithalla chetta.... , koduthirikkunnathe african malliyude padamane, pathiriyum ithalla


Place of Dr.Pouse Poulose Puthusserry

This is the google map view of my small village Kokkunnu.Its here I spent my childhood times.But now I am staying at thrissur at thaikkattussery.

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